From bedolakh till early Middle Ages

Modern crystal, also known as lead glass or flint glass got its names due to the original silica (quartz) source. From the moment of its discovery, it was immediately noticeable for its decorative properties and thus it was used.

The lead glass (‘bedolakh’ in Hebrew) was known to have been around from antiquity. It was mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as a gem from the land of Havila, a land through which flowed a river coming from Eden.

In Mesopotamia a recipe for lead glass was found engraved on a Babylonian tablet of 1700 BC. In the Akkadian language it is pronounced ‘budulhu’, just like its Hebrew counterpart. Lead glass was also discovered in 200 BC China and it was assumed that the technology reached China traveling along the Silk Road from the Middle East. An old 12th century manuscript details the manufacture of lead glass, calling it "Jewish glass".